writing tips

Writing tips: 5 steps for writing any non-fiction text

IT’S TIME TO WRITE! You’ve identified a communication need, done your research, gathered your content and it’s time to put the information into words.

Now you’re faced with a blank page (or screen) and you don’t know where to start. Don’t panic! Just follow these writing tips.

Update 2018: My book, Writing for Mobile, takes you through each step to help you understand how to do it!

1. Create a content map Sketch out a mindmap, dividing your content/ideas into groups of related content/ideas. “Label” the groups. These labels will later serve as draft chapter names or section headings. Structure the groups into a simple, logical sequence. Check that there’s a “home” for every bit of content.

You can sketch a mindmap on paper or use one of the many mindmapping tools available online, free or paid.

2. Define key messages Based on your content map, write down (just for yourself, in a rough checklist) the key messages you want readers to take away from your communication. Check that you have all the information available to be able to create these messages. Prioritize the messages.
3. Define keywords Identify and prioritize keywords to use in headlines, the lead paragraph and throughout the text.
4. Sketch out your inverted ladder content plan The inverted ladder is a list, in order of priority, of your core message, the lead content, other key messages and a rough outline of the content for each key message.
5. Write Using your inverted ladder as a template, start writing. Anywhere. Fill in content under each key message, starting with the easiest ones. Don’t worry too much about the quality of your writing at this stage. Just get your thoughts onto the page.
Use simple words and sentence structures and short paragraphs, but don’t oversimplify or sacrifice content. See also: Writing for Mobile. Chapter 8 contains 10 rules for writing more readable text.
6. Edit, clarify and correct Edit carefully to simplify, improve the flow, eliminate duplication, and correct spelling and grammar mistakes. Your readers aren’t mind-readers. State the facts precisely and explain them: don’t rely on suggestion and innuendo. Check that your key messages stand out. And proofread carefully. See also: Common English mistakes.

Done!

See also:
IA – Top 5 tips for organizing website content
10 NEW rules for business writing

For more writing tips, see the Articles section. We regularly add new in-depth articles and writing tips, particularly for business writers.

Posted by Fiona in writing tips, 0 comments

Common English mistakes

English has many commonly-misused words and phrases. Here’s a list of some of the most common English mistakes.

accept – except “Accept” is a verb meaning to take or receive. “Except” is usually a preposition meaning excluding.
  I will accept all the packages except that one.
adapt – adopt “Adapt” means to change. “Adopt” means to take as one’s own or to practise or use something.
  I have adapted the time plan to allow for holidays. They have adopted a child. He adopted a humble tone of voice.
advise – advice “Advise” is the verb. “Advice” is the noun.
  I advised him to stop giving unwanted advice.
affect – effect “Affect” is usually a verb meaning to influence. “Effect” is usually a noun meaning result.
  The drug did not affect the disease and it had several bad side effects.
alternate – alternative “Alternate” is a verb meaning one after the other or back and forth. “Alternative” is a noun meaning one or the other.
  The weather alternates between rain and shine. The alternative to a large bookcase is two small ones.
cheque – check “Cheque” is a noun meaning “bill”, “receipt” or “bank order” in British English. In American English it is spelt “check” which can also mean a slip or ticket showing the amount owed, especially a bill for food or beverages consumed. “Check” is also a verb, meaning to verify.
  Please check if this invoice is correct.
continual – continuous “Continual” usually means frequently occurring or recurring at frequent intervals. “Continuous” means unceasing or without interruption.
  The phones are ringing continually. My heart beats continuously.
dependent – dependant “Dependent” is a verb meaning relying upon. “Dependant” is a noun meaning a person (child or spouse) who depends on someone else for income or support. Generally, “dependent” is used for both.
  Umbrella sales are often dependent on the weather. All staff and their dependants (or dependents) are covered by health insurance.
ensure – insure – assure – secure The first three of these verbs all generally mean “to make sure,” but they cannot be used interchangeably. “Ensure” is something you do to guarantee an event or condition. This is sometimes spelled “insure” in American English.
“Assure” is something you do to a person to remove doubt or anxiety. “Insure” is reserved for limiting financial liability, most commonly by obtaining an insurance policy. “Secure” is to make something stable or safe.
  Please ensure that there is enough food. Assure the staff that their salaries will be paid on time despite the bank strikes. We are insured against theft. Secure high shelving units to the walls.
follow-up – follow up “Follow-up” is a noun or an adjective. “Follow up” is a verb.
  It is important to do follow-up after the event. The follow-up study shows a decrease in sales. You need to follow up on the results of the event.
fulfil Incorrect: fullfil, fullfill, fulfill. However, fulfilling and fulfilled are correct.
learning – lesson – finding The noun “learning” is not wrong. It means knowledge or skill gained from learning. But it is clumsy and can easily be replaced by the simpler word “lesson”, meaning a useful piece of practical wisdom acquired by experience or study, or by finding, meaning a conclusion reached after examination or investigation.
  The lesson from this activity is that we need to work together to achieve better results. The finding from the research analysis is that 0.2 percent failed the test.
less(er) – few(er) “Less” refers to quantity. “Few” refers to number.
  There is less water in this bottle. There are fewer cakes on this plate.
lose – loose “Lose” is to fail or go missing. Pronounced “louz”. “Loose” is the opposite of tight. Pronounced “louss”.
  We cannot afford to lose customers to our competitors. The screw is loose and needs to be tightened.
media – medium “Medium” is singular. “Media” is plural. Sometimes it is used as a singular collective noun to mean “the press media.”
  Digital media include blogs, websites, apps, etc. The media is sure to publish her photo.
precede – proceed “Precede” means to go before or be in front of. “Proceed” means to go forward, continue, or carry on.
  Production precedes distribution. Proceed with caution: the floor is unstable.
practice – practise “Practice” is a noun and “practise” is a verb.
  I will practise my English while on holiday. I will start football practice after lunch.
principle – principal “Principal” is an adjective meaning primary or main. “Principle” is a noun meaning a basic truth or law.
  The principal task is to clean up. Honesty is a matter of principle.
set-up – set up “Set-up” is a noun. “Set up” is a verb.
  This is an unusual set-up. The meeting room has been set up.
than – then “Than” is used in comparisons. “Then” relates to time.
  I like pizza more than lasagna. We ate dinner, then went to the movies.
their – there “Their” is a possessive pronoun. “There” indicates a place.
  I listen to their opinions. Please hang up your coat over there.
use – usage (noun) Although the definitions are slightly different, “usage” is usually just a fancy way to say “use.” Stick to “use”.
  The product is guaranteed one year with normal use. Regular use of oil improves the shine.
use – utilize (verb) Although the definitions are slightly different, “utilize” is usually just a fancy way to say “use.” Stick to “use”.
  It’s best to use all the available space in a room. Clever storage helps you use the space efficiently.

See also I couldn’t be arsed… and other less-common English mistakes.

 

 

 

 

Posted by Fiona in writing tips, 1 comment